Is this a holy thing to see
In a rich and fruitful land,
Babes reduc’d to misery,
Fed with cold and usurious hand ?
Is that trembling cry a song ?
Can it be a song of joy ?
And so many children poor?
It is a land of poverty.
And their sun does never shine,
And their fields are bleak and bare,
And their ways are fill’d with thorns :
It is eternal winter there.
For where’er the sun does shine,
And where’er the rain does fall,
Babe can never hunger there,
Nor poverty the mind appall.Word-Notes : Cold-unfeeling, भावहीन| Usurious-miserly, कंजूस, ब्याजखोर| Bleak—dark, अँधेरी। Bare-empty, खाली। Eternal-permanent, अंतहीन।
It takes much time to kill a tree,
Not a simple jab of the knife
Will do it. It has grown
Slowly consuming the earth,
Rising out of it, feeding
Upon its crust, absorbing
Years of sunlight, air, water,
And out of its leprous hide
So hack and chop
But this alone won’t do it.
Not so much pain will do it.
The bleeding bark will heal
And from close to the ground
Will rise curled green twigs,
Which if unchecked will expand again
To former size.
The root is to be pulled out
Out of the anchoring earth;
It is to be roped, tied,
And pulled out-snapped out
Or pulled out entirely,
Out from the earth-cave,
And the strength of the tree exposed,
The source, white and wet,
The most sensitive, hidden
For years inside the earth.
Then the matter
Of scorching and choking
In sun and air,
And then it is done.
Word-Notes : Jab-prick, चुभाना Consuming—eating up, समाप्त करना Crust-surface, पपड़ी Absorbing-taking in, सोखते Leprous—covered with scales, पपड़ी से ढकी Hide(here) skin, bark, छाल Sprouting—bringing out, निकालत हुए| Hack and chop-cut with a hack, फावड़े से काट दो। Bark-skin of the tree, पेड़ की छाल। Twigs a small thin branch, टहनी। Miniature-small, छोटा Boughs-main branch, शाखा/डाल Anchoring-preventing, रोकने वाली Snapped-broke, टूटा हुआ Scorching-heating, तपाना Choking-gagging, दम घोटन Withering—to dry up, सुखानाWrite comment (0 Comments)
As civilization proceeds in the direction of technology, it passes the point of supplying all the basic essentials of life: food, shelter, clothes, and warmth. Then we are faced with a choice between using technology to provide and fulfil needs which have hitherto been regarded as unnecessary or, on the other hand, using technology to reduce the number 5 of hours of work which a man must do in order to earn a given standard of living. In other words, we either raise our standard of living above that necessary for comfort and happiness or we leave it at this level and work shorter hours. I shall take it as axiomatic that mankind has, by that time, chosen the latter alternative. Men will be working shorter and shorter hours in their paid employment. It follows that the housewife will 10 also expect to be able to have more leisure in her life without lowering her standard of living. It also follows that human domestic servants will have completely ceased to exist. Yet the great majority of the housewives will wish to be relieved completely from the routine operations of the home such as scrubbing the floors or the bath or the cooker, or washing the clothes or washing up, or dusting or sweeping, or making beds.
By far the most logical step to relieve the housewife of routine, is to provide a robot
slave which can be trained to the requirements of a particular home and can be programmed to carry out half a dozen or more standard operations (for example, scrubbing, sweeping and dusting, washing up, laying tables, making beds), when so switched by the housewife. It will be a machine having no more emotions than a car, but having a memory for instructions and a limited degree of instructed or built in adaptability according to the positions in which it finds various types of objects. It will operate other more specialized machines, for example, the vacuum cleaner or clothes washing machine.
Extracted from ‘A Robot about the House’ by M.W. Thring (adaptedWord-Notes : Hitherto—so far, अब तक| Axiomatic-self-evident, स्वतः सिद्ध| Ceased to exist—vanished, समाप्त| Scrubbing-rubbing, पोंछा लगाना| Operations-tasks, काम| Adaptability-adjustability, अभ्यस्त होने की क्षमता|
1. Unfortunately, the Pere David deer and the white-tailed gnu are not the only creatures in the world that are nearly extinct. The list of creatures that have vanished altogether, and others that have almost vanished, is a long and melancholy one. As man spread across the earth he has wrought the most terrible havoc among the wildlife by shooting, trapping, cutting and burning the forest, and by the callous and stupid introduction of enemies where there were no enemies before.
2. Take the dodo, for example, the great ponderous waddling pigeon, the size of a goose, that inhabited the island of Mauritius. Secure in its island home, this bird had lost the power of flight since there were no enemies to fly from. And, since there were no enemies, it nested on the ground in complete safety. But, as well as losing the power of flight, it seems to have lost the power of recognizing an enemy when it saw one, for it was apparently an extremely tame and confiding creature. Then man discovered the dodos’ paradise in about 1507, and with him came his evil familiars: dogs, cats, pigs, rats and goats. The dodo surveyed these new arrivals with an air of innocent interest. Then the slaughter began. The goats ate the undergrowth which provided the dodo with cover; dogs and cats hunted and harried the old bird; while pigs grunted their way’ round the island, eating the eggs and young and the rats followed behind to finish the feast. But the fat, ungainly and harmless pigeon was extinct-as dead as the dodo. (265 words)
Word-Notes : Extinct-vanished, गायब| Vanished-disappeared, गायब हो गया| Wrought-brought, लाया| Callous—apathetic, निर्मम| Ponderous—big sized, विशालकाय| Waddling-walking like a duck, बतख की तरह चलना| Inhabited-lived in, बसी हुई थी| Confiding—trusting, विशवासी| Harried-troubled, सताया| Grunted-made low sounds (as the pigs do), घुरघुराये।Write comment (0 Comments)
I wandered lonely as cloud
That floats on high o’er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host of golden daffodils ;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle in the milky way,
They stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay :
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their head in sprightly dance.
The waves beside them danced ; but they
Outdid the sparkling waves in glee :
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company ;
I gazed—and gazed—but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought.
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude ;
And then my heart with pleasure fills
And dances with the daffodils.
Word-Notes : Host-group, समूह Fluttering-flapping wing, पंख फड़फड़ाना Twinkle—sparkle, टिमटिमाना Margin-edges, किनारे Tossing-moving, हलाते हुए| Sprightly-lively, जीवंत Outdid-surpassed, आगे निकाल गये Glee-happiness, खुशी Jocund-happy, प्रसन्न Vacant—empty, hollow, खाली Pensive-thoughtful, विचारपूर्णो Inward-inside, आतंरिक Bliss-extreme happiness, परमानंद। Solitude-loneliness, एकांत।Write comment (0 Comments)
Vegetable oil has been known from antiquity. No household can get on without it, for it is used in cooking. Perfumes may be made from the oils of certain flowers. Soaps are made from vegetable and animal oils.
To the ordinary man, one kind of oil may be as important as another. But when the 5 politician or the engineer refers to oil, he almost always means mineral oil, the oil that drives tanks, aeroplanes and warships, motor cars and diesel locomotives ; the oil that is used to lubricate all kinds of machinery. This is the oil that has changed the life of the common man. When it is refined into petrol it is used to drive the internal combustion engine. To it we owe the existence of the motor car, which has replaced the private 10 carriage drawn by the horse. To it we owe the possibility of flying. It has changed the methods of warfare on land and sea. This kind of oil comes out of the earth. Because it burns well, it is used as fuel and in some ways it is superior to coal in this respect. Many big ships now burn oil instead of coal. Because it burns brightly, it is used for illumination ; countless homes are still illuminated with oil burning lamps. Because it 15 is very slippery, it is used for lubrication. Two metal surfaces rubbing together cause friction and heat. But if they are separated by a thin film of oil, the friction and heat are reduced. No machine would work for long if it were not properly lubricated. The oil used for this purpose must be of the correct thickness; if it is too thin it will not give sufficient lubrication, and if it is too thick it will not reach all parts that must be lubricated.
The existence of oil wells has been known for a long time. Some of the Indians of North America used to collect and sell the oil from the wells of Pennsylvania. No one, however, seems to have realised the importance of this oil until it was found that paraffin oil could be made from it. This led to the development of the wells and to the making of enormous profits. When the internal combustion engine was invented, oil became of 25 worldwide importance.
-Extracted from ‘Oil by G.C. Thornley (adapted)
Word-Notes : Antiquity-ancient times, प्राचीन काल| Refined-purified, शुद्ध किया| Illumination-lighting, रोशनी Countless-numberless, अनगिनत| Lubrication-making oily, चिकनाई| Film-layer, पश्त| Existence-being, अस्तित्व| Enormous-big, विशाल|Write comment (0 Comments)
1. The earth is occasionally hit by craggy remnants of creation known as asteroids. About 150 are known to cross the earth’s path. These lie in a loose belt between the Mars and Jupiter like so much rubble left over from creation. The first asteroid was too faint to be seen by the naked eye. It was discovered by an Italian monk named Guiseppi Piazzi, working at an observatory in Palermo, Sicily. The largest found so far is about 8 km wide.
2. Slamming into the earth at roughly 26 km a second, a large asteroid could explode with the force of a million hydrogen bombs, lofting enough pulverised rock and dust to block most sunlight. Cold and darkness could last for months, crippling agriculture and probably a good part of modern civilization, leading to the deaths of a billion or more people from starvation.
3. “The risk is real”, Dr David Morrison of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Ames Research Centre in California, who was co-chairman of the study by nearly 100 scientists, said in an interview. Dr Morrison further says that the asteroid threat has dawned on scientists only slowly and is hard for layman to comprehend. But the unambiguous fact, he said, is that mankind lives in a kind of cosmic shooting gallery.
4. Dr Morrison says that there are clues of the asteroids in the large number of impact craters found throughout the solar system by robot spacecraft exploring planets. There are numerous craters found by geologists on the earth also. Some 130 have been discovered with the list growing by five or six a year. The largest crater, which is in Ontario, is 198 km from rim to rim.
5. New awareness of asteroid impacts has increased the appreciation of close encounters and mysterious events. In 1908 in the Tunguska region of Siberia a cosmic object that never reached the earth’s surface exploded in the atmosphere with a force of some 20 hydrogen bombs. The resulting shock wave flattened hundreds of square miles of forest. Scientists now calculate the object was perhaps a mere 38 m in diameter. (351 words)
Word-Notes : Craggy-stony, चट्टानी Remnants-an amount or part that remains, अवशेष Rubble-broken pieces of a building, कबाड़| Slamming-hitting, टकराना| Lofting– hitting into the air, हवा में उछालना| Pulverised-crushed, चुश बनी| Crippling—destroying, नष्ट करना| Unambiguous-clear, स्पष्ट Clues-indications, सुराग| Impact-collision, टकराव| Craters-large hole, a bowl-shaped depression with a raised rim, formed by the impact of a meteoroid, ज्वालामुखी, कटोरे के आकार का एक ऐसा गड्ढा जो किसी उल्कापिण्ड के टकराने से बना हो। Appreciation-understanding, समझ Encounters—impacts, टकराव|Write comment (0 Comments)
Discuss with your partner the following definition of a poem.
A poem is made of words arranged in a beautiful order. These words, when read aloud with feeling, have a music and meaning of their own.
Very true. Poetry is different from prose because it arranges best words in a musical order. However, a poem being short, musical and interesting is easy to learn by heart and to remember for a long period.
The poetry of earth’ is not made of words. What is it made of, as suggested in the poem?
The poetry of earth is made of the chirping of birds in trees, and a grasshopper’s sound. They sing joyfully without a long break
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